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[FLEUVES] 4th Working Session – Cults and Traditions, from the 2nd Millennium until Today

Anatolian Rivers between East and West Axes and Frontiers Geographical, economical and cultural aspects of the human-environment interactions between the Hebros and Tigris Rivers in ancient times The Cultural Aspects of Rivers 28th September-1st October 2017 Istanbul (French Institute of Anatolian Studies) Enez (Enez Excavations Directorate) http://www.transfers.ens.fr/anatolian-rivers-between-east-and-west-axes-and-frontiers Cults and Traditions, from the 2nd Millennium until Today: Discussion

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[FLEUVES] Treaty, Ritual, Ordeal: Rivers in Hittite Anatolia

Anatolian Rivers between East and West Axes and Frontiers Geographical, economical and cultural aspects of the human-environment interactions between the Hebros and Tigris Rivers in ancient times The Cultural Aspects of Rivers 28th September-1st October 2017 Istanbul (French Institute of Anatolian Studies) Enez (Enez Excavations Directorate) http://www.transfers.ens.fr/anatolian-rivers-between-east-and-west-axes-and-frontiers Perceptions and Representations of Western Asiatic Rivers İlgi Gerçek (Bilkent University, Ankara, ilgigercek@gmail.com) Treaty, Ritual, Ordeal: Rivers in Hittite Anatolia Hittite archives and monuments dating to the Late Bronze Age (c. 1650-1200 BCE) provide us with ample evidence to study the economic and cultural significance of sources of water—from rivers and springs to man-made pools and water reservoirs. Recent studies have focused particularly on the effective water management strategies developed by the Hittite polity to cope with the unstable climatic conditions of central Anatolia, and the monuments built in or around water sources, which incorporated these sources into the Hittite state cult. The present paper will explore instead the cultural significance of rivers in Hittite Anatolia—their diverse and sometimes contradictory roles in the (1) cultic practices, (2) myths, and (3) geographical perceptions of its inhabitants, as summarized below. As prominent features of the topography of central Anatolia, rivers framed and defined the Hittite homeland in the Kızılırmak river basin. They were perceived as deities and at the same time served as the setting for rituals, festivals, and judicial ordeals. Rivers featured in numerous myths

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[FLEUVES] Performing Imperial Cult: The Archaeological Survey of Fasıllar and its contribution to Hittite Cult Practices

Anatolian Rivers between East and West Axes and Frontiers Geographical, economical and cultural aspects of the human-environment interactions between the Hebros and Tigris Rivers in ancient times The Cultural Aspects of Rivers 28th September-1st October 2017 Istanbul (French Institute of Anatolian Studies) Enez (Enez Excavations Directorate) http://www.transfers.ens.fr/anatolian-rivers-between-east-and-west-axes-and-frontiers Perceptions and Representations of Western Asiatic Rivers Yigit Erbil (Hacettepe University, yigiterbil@gmail.com) Performing Imperial Cult: The Archaeological Survey of Fasıllar and its contribution to Hittite Cult Practices From 2012, five archaeological surveys have been completed around the so-called Fasıllar Monument and its surrounding area. Since its discovery, this monument has intrigued the scientific community, as it lies on its own with no Hittite archaeological settlement nearby. The general aims of the Fasıllar Regional Archaeological Project are threefold: to determine the general historical and geographical contexts of the Fasıllar Monument

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[FLEUVES] 3rd Working Session – Perceptions and Representations of Western Asiatic Rivers: Discussion

Anatolian Rivers between East and West Axes and Frontiers Geographical, economical and cultural aspects of the human-environment interactions between the Hebros and Tigris Rivers in ancient times The Cultural Aspects of Rivers 28th September-1st October 2017 Istanbul (French Institute of Anatolian Studies) Enez (Enez Excavations Directorate) http://www.transfers.ens.fr/anatolian-rivers-between-east-and-west-axes-and-frontiers Perceptions and Representations of Western Asiatic Rivers: Discussion

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Conférence «Les perturbateurs endocriniens : quel est l’avenir de notre futur ?»

Doctoriades le 12 octobre 2017 à l&#039;Université de Toulon Retrouvez la conférence inaugurale sur le thème  «Les perturbateurs endocriniens : quel est l’avenir de notre futur ?» par Joël-Paul GRILLASCA, Professeur, Université de Toulon, Laboratoire IAPS

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[FLEUVES] The Antiochean Orontes: A City and its River, Realities and Legends

Anatolian Rivers between East and West Axes and Frontiers Geographical, economical and cultural aspects of the human-environment interactions between the Hebros and Tigris Rivers in ancient times The Cultural Aspects of Rivers 28th September-1st October 2017 Istanbul (French Institute of Anatolian Studies) Enez (Enez Excavations Directorate) http://www.transfers.ens.fr/anatolian-rivers-between-east-and-west-axes-and-frontiers Perceptions and Representations of Western Asiatic Rivers Catherine Saliou (University of Paris VIII / École Pratique des Hautes Études, Paris, catherine.saliou@ephe.sorbonne.fr) The Antiochean Orontes: a city and its river, facts and myths The presence of the Orontes at the feet of the Antiochean Tyche stresses the strength of the relationship between the city of Antioch and the river Orontes. The proceedings of a colloquium entitled Le fleuve rebelle. Géographie historique du Moyen Oronte d’Ebla à l’époque médiévale, recently published, are a good starting point for rethinking this relation in Classical and Late Antiquity. The various contributions in this volume remind the importance of the seminal work of Jacques Weulersse and offer some new insights about the role played by the Orontes in the history. In the course of this paper, we will first study the role of the Orontes in the urban landscape and urban life of Antioch, before turning to the imagined Orontes. The course of the river changed through the times, and as a consequence our knowledge of the ancient landscape is blurred. Ancient Antioch extended along the left bank of the Orontes, between the river and the mountain. In the course of time, the city grew outside its walls and on the other side of the river, and in Late Antiquity the name of Palaia (“The Old city”) applied to the part (or to a part) of the agglomeration located on the left bank. The Antiochean Orontes, from the Amuk Lake to the sea, is a Mediterranean river, which may be navigable, and was indeed a shipping lane at least during the Roman and Late Roman period. This implies the existence of a fluvial harbour or several fluvial harbours. But the river was not only a shipping lane. Waterpower moved watermills. At least in Late Antiquity, such watermills were a source of income for the municipality. The flow of the river was also derived for various purposes. During the reign of the emperor Vespasian, at least two channels have been dug. The “fullers’ channel&quot; was been dug by the people of Antioch. Another channel is known through a Latin inscription: referring to it as Dipotamiae fluminis ductus. This inscription commemorates the digging of this channel by soldiers of the Roman army. Two questions remain unsolved: the meaning of “Dipotamia” and the relationship between the channel and Antioch. A Greek inscription recently found3 helps to answer these questions. The mere fact that the same text has been posted, on two different supports, in Latin (language of the emperor) and in Greek (language of the city), is meaningful. The Orontes was familiar to the Antiocheans especially since, until the sixth century, the bank itself was apparently not fortified. To be sure, in the fourth century, there was no city-wall along the Orontes: Libanius and John Chrysostom speak about gardens extended until the river. People who lived on the slopes on the mountains, relatively far from the river, enjoyed nevertheless, a view on it. Moreover, the island and the suburbs were, in Late Antiquity at least, vibrant sectors of the agglomeration. The island itself is probably an artificial island, created by the digging of a channel. There are traces of occupation from the Hellenistic period onwards, but the Late Antique period is far the best known. In the Late Antiquity, it was named as “the New (city)” (Kaine). The imperial palace occupied the fourth of its surface. On the island were also the hippodrome and public baths. The New City was a vibrant centre of power and urban life. It was walled, which should mean visually isolated from the river. However, the upper gallery of the palace offered a direct view on the Orontes and the other bank of the river. There was also a way passing along the Orontes, between the palace and the river, and giving access to the Campus (parade ground, and meeting place of one of the Christian factions of the city ca 370). Beyond the island, Libanius describes the suburbs, on the right bank of the Orontes, as vivid and pleasant. We know also that some prestigious churches were located on this right bank. All this means that the agglomeration of Antioch as a whole was less bordered, than crossed by the river. This remark points out the importance of the bridges in the urban landscape and urban life. Things changed, however, in the sixth century. After Valens (dead in 378), emperors had ceased to come and stay in Antioch, and it seems that the New city had lost bit by bit its importance. After ravaging earthquakes (526 and 528) and the Persian invasion (540), Justinian ordered to rebuild the city on a reduced perimeter. The course of the Orontes itself was channelled, in order to border the new citywall. One of the consequences of these works was to cut (or at least stretch) the tie between the Antiocheans and the Orontes. In the fourth century, the Orontes was clearly for Libanius a structural component of the urban landscape. At the end of the sixth century, the river is mentioned only once in the Ecclesiastical History of Evagrius Scholasticus, in the narrative of a riot which took place in 512. In the Vita of Symeon Stylites the Younger, written in the beginning of the seventh century, the river is never mentioned in the passages referring to Antioch. The Antiochean mental map seems to have evolved, and the Orontes might have lost its significance for the inhabitants of Antioch. The Orontes

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[FLEUVES] Rivers as Political and Cultural Frontiers between the Provinces of Roman Asia Minor

Anatolian Rivers between East and West Axes and Frontiers Geographical, economical and cultural aspects of the human-environment interactions between the Hebros and Tigris Rivers in ancient times The Cultural Aspects of Rivers 28th September-1st October 2017 Istanbul (French Institute of Anatolian Studies) Enez (Enez Excavations Directorate) http://www.transfers.ens.fr/anatolian-rivers-between-east-and-west-axes-and-frontiers Perceptions and Representations of Western Asiatic Rivers Benet Salway (University College London, r.salway@ucl.ac.uk) Rivers as Political and Cultural Frontiers between the Provinces of Roman Asia Minor We are familiar with major rivers as forming borders at the outer frontiers of Roman domination, from the Rhine in the west to the Euphrates in the east. At the same time, the idea that rivers form corridors of communication and river valleys natural cultural communities is well established. Many city territories, even of those of port cities had a fresh water course running at their heart. Given that Roman provincial organisation, at least in already urbanised areas, such as Asia Minor, was defined by lists of generally pre-existing city territories (the formulae provinciarum), the boundaries of the provinces coincide with those of the boundaries of their constituent civic communities. Moreover, as Ronald Syme observed, the Roman roads, which tended to run along the river valleys, formed the spine of provincial organisation. Typically, therefore, provincial boundaries in Asia Minor are found running predominantly along the watersheds of mountain ranges separating river valleys, as, for example, the ranges describing the Pisidian extension of the province of Galatia (around the colonies of Apollonia and Antioch). In late antiquity, however, the Syndecdemos of Hierocles, allows us to perceive the use of the Maeander River as the frontier between the province of Caria to its south, and the rump of the province of Asia to the north, out of which it had been carved. Recent epigraphical finds have shone new light on the determination of some Roman provincial boundaries in Asia Minor. Field survey undertaken by F. Battistoni, and P. Rothenhöfer (Epigraphica Anatolica, 46 [2013], 101-165 = AE 2013, 1443) in the territories of the modern towns of Orhaneli (Hadrianoi) and of Keles, revealed that the prosopographie and the dating formulae of the dedications at the rural sanctuary at Assartepe, near Baraklı, and that of Tazlaktepe, near Belenören, suggest thsat the region known as the chora of the Dagoutènoi (ἡ Δαγουτηνῶν χώρα : IHadrianoi (IK, 33), 50), occupying a zone in the bend of the Kocaçay (Rhyndacus) on the south-western slopes of Uludağ (Mt Olympus), belonged to the territory of Prusa ad Olympum (Bursa) in Bithynia rather than to that of Hadrianoi in the province Asia. Thus, at least in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD, the frontier between Asia and Bithynia was not the crest of Mt Olympus but the course of the river Rhyndacus. Conversely a recently published inscription from Nysa in northern side of the Maeander valley (E. N. Akdoğa-Arca in Vir Doctus Anatolicus [2016], 67) shows the city of Nysa to have erected a statue base to the senator Q. Clodius Fabius Agrippianus Celsinus, praeses of Phrygia-Caria, possibly as the first holder of this post (c. AD 255/260). This suggests that when the province of Phrygia-Caria was first carved out of the great proconsular province of Asia the frontier in this region ran along the watershed between the Maeander and Cayster valleys and was only later moved south to the line of the Maeander river itself, thus returning Nysa to the province of Asia. Here the later decision favours a pragmatic frontier over one that respected indigenous cultural units, a tendency of Roma provincial organisation that the geographer Strabo had already commented upon in the early first century.

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[FLEUVES) Rivers as Pre-Modern Cartographic Challenge: The Case of Asia Minor

Anatolian Rivers between East and West Axes and Frontiers Geographical, economical and cultural aspects of the human-environment interactions between the Hebros and Tigris Rivers in ancient times The Cultural Aspects of Rivers 28th September-1st October 2017 Istanbul (French Institute of Anatolian Studies) Enez (Enez Excavations Directorate) http://www.transfers.ens.fr/anatolian-rivers-between-east-and-west-axes-and-frontiers Perceptions and Representations of Western Asiatic Rivers Richard Talbert (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, talbert@email.unc.edu) Rivers as Pre-Modern Cartographic Challenge: The Case of Asia Minor The paper illustrates and discusses the longstanding universal difficulties of mapping rivers, with special reference to Asia Minor. Here, as late as the early 20th century, mapping was still conducted under conditions comparable to those found during classical antiquity. In consequence, with major initiative by the Ottoman authorities barely begun, the hydrography of Richard Kiepert’s Karte von Kleinasien (1901-1907) was far from definitive. The sole surviving representation of the region transmitted to us from antiquity, the Peutinger Map, treats rivers cavalierly, although perhaps nothing better is to be expected from this Map’s curious design. Even in Ptolemy’s Geography concern for river-courses is all but lacking, a limitation justified by his confinement of the work’s scope to geographia and point-data, without accommodating the detail associated with chorographia and with large-scale surveys such as those undertaken by Roman agrimensores. Strabo, too, describes his native region of Asia Minor strictly at the level of geographia, from a perspective far more terrestrial than fluvial. Wherever the unfinished Artemidorus Map may represent, it is evidently at the least chorographic work, which – contra its editors Gallazzi, Kramer, Settis (2008) – affords us a glimpse of how rivers might be rendered by ancient cartographers.

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[FLEUVES] 2nd Session Between Asia and Asia Minor: Cilician and Near Eastern Rivers: Discussion

Anatolian Rivers between East and West Axes and Frontiers Geographical, economical and cultural aspects of the human-environment interactions between the Hebros and Tigris Rivers in ancient times The Cultural Aspects of Rivers 28th September-1st October 2017 Istanbul (French Institute of Anatolian Studies) Enez (Enez Excavations Directorate) http://www.transfers.ens.fr/anatolian-rivers-between-east-and-west-axes-and-frontiers Between Asia and Asia Minor: Cilician and Near Eastern Rivers: Discussion

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[FLEUVES] Between Forest and Coast: Why should we talk about the flotation of logs in Protohistoric Cilicia?

Anatolian Rivers between East and West Axes and Frontiers Geographical, economical and cultural aspects of the human-environment interactions between the Hebros and Tigris Rivers in ancient times The Cultural Aspects of Rivers 28th September-1st October 2017 Istanbul (French Institute of Anatolian Studies) Enez (Enez Excavations Directorate) http://www.transfers.ens.fr/anatolian-rivers-between-east-and-west-axes-and-frontiers Between Asia and Asia Minor: Cilician and Near Eastern Rivers Éric JEAN (Çorum University, ericjean1@yahoo.com) Between Forest and Coast: Why should we talk about the flotation of logs in Protohistoric Cilicia? Hittite texts provide the names of many watercourses, in connection with religious practices or serving as space delimitations, like the border between two kingdoms or the limits of a temple’s area. On the other hand, they remain very silent about the use of rivers for socioeconomic activities, as transport. Protohistoric Cilicia confirms that picture but, with its geographical situation between mountains and sea, it may also serve as a study case for the potential use of its rivers as means of wood transport, by flotation. From both archaeological evidence and inferences drawn from the interpretation of textual evidence, metallurgy and shipbuilding must have been important activities in Cilicia, from the Chalcolithic period (Mersin-Yumuktepe) and, at least, the Hittite period onwards, respectively. Both activities required big amounts of wood, which was supplied by the surrounding forests from the Taurus and the Amanus ranges. Since land transport from the mountains was particularly difficult until the construction of modern roads, it can be assumed that the conveying of timber was made by rivers. As there is no direct evidence for the flotation of logs in Cilicia during the Hittite period, which is concerned here, indirect information will be induced from, first, the study of wood, its importance, use and origin, and, secondly, the analysis of the Cilician rivers and their potential use during the 2nd Millennium BC. Wood represented a good of first necessity, not only for the daily heating and the architecture, but for the metallurgical industry and the construction of ships as well. Metallurgical activities were assumed from, at least, the excavations in Kinet Höyük, Tarsus-Gözlü Kule and Kilise Tepe. In the 13th c. BC, a letter sent by the Hittite king Hattushili III to an Assyrian king mentions a royal storehouse for iron in Kizzuwatna (Plane Cilicia)

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